The hydrides of carbon (hydrocarbons) and their derivatives are called organic compounds. The branch of chemistry which deals with these compounds is called organic chemistry.
2. Bio molecule and Polymers
A Biomolecule is any molecule present in living organisms including large macromolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids & lipids, and the small molecules such as primary and secondary metabolites & natural products.
3. Alkyl Halide, Alcohol and Ether
Alkyl halides (also known as haloalkanes) are compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an alkane have been replaced by halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine).
Alcohols. Incorporation of an oxygen atom into carbon- and hydrogen-containing molecules leads to new functional groups and new families of compounds. When the oxygen atom is attached by single bonds, the molecule is either an alcohol or ether.
4. Organic Reaction
are redox reactions specific to organic compounds and are very common. In condensation reactions a small molecule, usually water, is split off when two reactants combine in a chemical reaction. The opposite reaction, when water is consumed in a reaction, is called hydrolysis.
5. Aldehydes And Ketones
An aldehyde is a common functional group in organic chemistry. ... In an aldehyde, a carbonyl group is single-bonded to a hydrogen atom. A carbonyl is a carbon that is double bonded to an oxygen atom. The carbonyl carbon is also bonded to another hydrogen atom or a carbon/hydrogen chain, typically known as an R group.
a ketone (alkanone) /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is an organic compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds that contain a carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond).
6. Aromatic Compound
The term aromatically is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms. ... Nevertheless, many non-benzene aromatic compounds exist.
1. General Organic Chemistry
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
8. Haloalkane and HaloArenes
Haloalkanes are organic chemical compounds formed by replacement of one or more hydrogen atom from an alkane group by a halogen group (elements of group 17 such as chlorine, bromine, Fluorine, iodine, etc.).
A Brief Guide to Types of Isomerism in Organic Chemistry. In organic chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula (i.e. the same number of atoms of each element), but different structural or spatial arrangements of the atoms within the molecule.
10. IUPAC Nomenclature
The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). It is published in the Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (informally called the Blue Book).
Tautomers (/ˈtɔːtəmə/) are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert. This reaction commonly results in the relocation of a proton. ... The concept of tautomerizations is called tautomerism. The chemical reaction interconverting the two is called tautomerization.
13. Nucleophile Anion
Examples of nucleophiles are anions such as Cl−, or a compound with a lone pair of electrons such as NH3 (ammonia). In the example below, the oxygen of the hydroxide ion donates an electron pair to form a new chemical bond with the carbon at the end of the bromopropane molecule.