Applications of Biotechnology. Biotechnology has application in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses.
2. Animal Diversity
Animal Diversity Web. Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database that collects the natural history, classification, species characteristics, conservation biology, and distribution information on thousands of species of animals. It includes thousands of photographs, hundreds of sound clips, and a virtual museum
3. Animal husbandry
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock. ... Most livestock are herbivores, except for the pig which is an omnivore
Biomolecules include large macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. A more general name for this class of material is biological materials.
Biotechnology is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life. The earliest biotechnology were farmers who developed improved species of plants and animals by cross pollenization or cross breeding.
6. Body Fluid and Circulation
The circulatory system is also known as the cardiovascular system. It is an organ system that allows blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as electrolytes and amino acids), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells.
7. Breathing and exchange of gases
(a) Exchange of gases in lungs: It is also called external respiration. In this gaseous exchange oxygen passes from alveoli to pulmonary capillary blood and CO2. ... Therefore, carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood of alveolar capillaries into the alveolar air.
8. Digestion and Absorption
The amino acids are absorbed into the bloodstream through the small intestine. Protein digestion and absorption: Protein digestion is a multistep process that begins in the stomach and continues through the intestines. Proteins are absorbed into the blood stream by the small intestine.
An ecosystem is made up of plants, animals, microorganisms, soil, rocks, minerals, water sources and the local atmosphere interacting with one another. The biotic factors and abiotic factors interact as a system and are linked to one another via nutrient cycles and energy flows
The major in Environmental Biology offers a rigorous program of study in science related to the environment. This major is designed to provide students with a foundation in population, whole organism, evolutionary biology and environmental science as well as in chemistry and mathematics.
evolution is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations and relies on the process of natural selection. The theory of evolution is based on the idea that all species? are related and gradually change over time.
12. Excretory System
Excretory system. The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from the body fluids of an organism, so as to help maintain internal chemical homeostasis and prevent damage to the body.
13. Human Genetics
Population genetics. Population genetics is the branch of evolutionary biology responsible for investigating processes that cause changes in allele and genotype frequencies in populations based upon Mendelian inheritance. ... For human genetics the populations will consist only of the human species.
14. Human health and Disease
A-level Biology/Human Health and Disease/infectious diseases. An infectious disease is a disease resulting from the presence of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and multicellular parasites. These pathogens are able to cause disease in animals and/or plants.
15. Human Physiology
It is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems. They ensure homeostasis and the viability of the human body. ... Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions.
16. Microbes in Human Welfare
Micro-organisms such as Lactobacillus and others commonly called lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grow in milk and convert it to curd. ... In our stomach too, the LAB play very beneficial role in checking disease- causing microbes. The dough, which is used for making foods such as dosa and idli is also fermented by bacteria.
17. Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Definition of DNA. “Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known Living Organisms and many viruses.” It is a long polymer of deoxyribonucleotides and length of DNA depends on the number of nucleotides present in it.
18. Plant Breeding
Modern plant breeding. Modern plant breeding may use techniques of molecular biology to select, or in the case of genetic modification, to insert, desirable traits into plants. Application of biotechnology or molecular biology is also known as molecular breeding
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". ... There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual. In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism.
20. Reproductive Health
In the ICPD Program of Action, 'reproductive health' is defined as: a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and...not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems.
23. Organisms and their environment
Ecology Definition. Ecology is the branch of biology that studies how organisms interact with their environment and other organisms. ... Ecology is the study of these forces, what produces them, and the complex relationships between organisms and each other, and organisms and their non-living environment.
'Biological diversity' means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.