Mole Concept. In chemistry the mole is a fundamental unit in the Système International d'Unités, the SI system, and it is used to measure the amount of substance. This quantity is sometimes referred to as the chemical amount. In Latin mole means a "massive heap" of material.
Stoichiometry is the study of the quantitative relationships or ratios between two or more substances undergoing a physical change or chemical change (chemical reaction). ... Most often, stoichiometry calculations deal with the mass or volumes of products and reactants.
3. Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure. In 1803, Dalton put forward a theory which explained the composition of matter. According to Dalton, an atom may be defined as the smallest part of matter that can be take part in a chemical reaction. ... The existence of electrons and protons in atoms was first suggested by Sir J.J.
4. State Of Matter
Liquid is defined as that state of matter which has a definite volume but no definite shape. They take up the shape of the vessel in which they are put. Gas is defined as that state of matter which has neither definite shape nor definite volume.
5. Chemical Bonding
Chemical Bonding. Chemical bond is an attractive force which keeps tow atoms or ions together in a molecule.A molecule is formed if it is more stable and has lower energy than the individual atoms.
6. Thermodynamics & Thermochemistry
Thermodynamics deals with things like energy, entropy, volume, heat, work, efficiency. (ideal), free energy, chemical potential, pressure, temperature. It was developed to explain steam engines back in the 1800's.
7. Chemical & Ionic Equilibrium
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system. ... Such a state is known as dynamic equilibrium.
8. Redox Reactions
Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species.
9. Solid State
In solids molecules are closely packed. ... Materials science is primarily concerned with the physical and chemical properties of solids. Solid-state chemistry is especially concerned with the synthesis of novel materials, as well as the science of identification and chemical composition.
a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. The term aqueous solution is when one of the solvents is water. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent.
Electrochemistry is a sub-discipline of physical chemistry; it is concerned with: chemical reactions involving charged particles and electron transfers - i.e. redox reactions. the relationship between electrical and chemical energy and the conversion of one to the other.
12. Chemical Kinetics
Chemical kinetics is an important phenomenon in physical chemistry. The term kinetics is referred to as the study of motion. It is derived from the Greek word “kinesis”. It is a study of chemical reaction with respect to reaction rates, effect of different variables such as temperature and concentration.
13. Surface Chemistry
Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces. It includes the fields of surface chemistry and surface physics.