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Complete IIT Physical Chemistry By NA Sir

(Class XI & XII)

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1500 ₹ 1199

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    Subject Name: Physical Chemistry

  • Chapter 1 Mole Concept (Class XI)
    Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on Stoichiometry.
  • Chapter 2 Stoichiometry Class (XI)
    Almost all stoichiometric problems can be solved in just four simple steps: Balance the equation. Convert units of a given substance to moles. Using the mole ratio, calculate the moles of substance yielded by the reaction.
  • Chapter 3 Atomic Structure (Class XI)
    Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thompson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations, Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
  • Chapter 4 Gaseous State
    Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points,role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
  • Chapter 5 Chemical Equilibrium (Class XI)
    In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time. Usually, this state results when the forward reaction proceeds at the same rate as the reverse reaction.
  • Chapter 6 Ionic Equilibrium (Class XI)
    Ionic equilibrium is the equilibrium established between the unionized molecules and the ions in a solution of weak electrolytes.
  • Chapter 7 Redox (Class XI)
    Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers , applications of redox reactions.
  • Chapter 8 Thermodynamics (Class XI)
    Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and Enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, Anthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, Automization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Introduction of entropy as a state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium. Third law of thermodynamics –Brief introduction.
  • Chapter 9 Liquid & Solutions (Class XII)
    Classification of solids based on different binding forces :molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids(elementary idea),unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids ,number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals ,conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors .
  • Chapter 10 Solid State (Class XII)
    Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law , elevation of B.P., depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Vant Hoff factor.
  • Chapter 11 Electrochemistry (Class XII)
    Redox reactions; conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
  • Chapter 12 Chemical Kinetics (Class XII)
    Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
  • Chapter 13 Radioactivity (Class XII)
    In radioactive processes, particles or electromagnetic radiation are emitted from the nucleus. The most common forms of radiation emitted have been traditionally classified as alpha (a), beta (b), and gamma (g) radiation. Nuclear radiation occurs in other forms, including the emission of protons or neutrons or spontaneous fission of a massive nucleus.
  • Chapter 14 Thermochemistry (Class XII)
    Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations. A reaction may release or absorb energy, and a phase change may do the same, such as in melting and boiling
  • Chapter 15 Surface Chemistry (Class XII)
    Surface chemistry. Surface chemistry can be roughly defined as the study of chemical reactions at interfaces. ... Surface science is of particular importance to the fields of heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemistry, and geochemistry.

Best Package of IIT Maths(XI+XII)

(Class XI & Class XII)

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1400 ₹ 1100

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    Subject Name: Maths

  • Chapter 1 Inverse Trignometric Function ( Class XI)
    They are the inverses of the sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant functions, and are used to obtain an angle from any of the angle's trigonometric ratios. Inverse trigonometric functions are widely used in engineering, navigation, physics, and geometry.
  • Chapter 2 Trignometric Equation ( Class XI)
    That is, for a given number there exists more than one angle whose sine, cosine, etc., is that number. ... They can also be represented like this: y = sin-1(x), y = cos-1(x), etc. The chart below shows the restricted ranges that transform the inverse relations into the inverse functions.
  • Chapter 3 Complex Number (Class XI )
    The complex numbers are the field of numbers of the form , where and are real numbers and i is the imaginary unit equal to the square root of , . When a single letter is used to denote a complex number, it is sometimes called an "affix." In component notation, can be written .
  • Chapter 4 Binomial Theorem ( Class XI )
    In elementary algebra, the binomial theorem (or binomial expansion) describes the algebraic expansion of powers of a binomial. ... The coefficient a in the term of a xb yc is known as the binomial coefficient or (the two have the same value). These coefficients for varying n and b can be arranged to form Pascal's triangle.
  • Chapter 5 Permutation And Combination ( Class XI )
    Alice, Bob and Charlie is the same as Charlie, Bob and Alice. Permutations are for lists (order matters) and combinations are for groups (order doesn't matter). A joke: A "combination lock" should really be called a "permutation lock". The order you put the numbers in matters.
  • Chapter 6 Quadratic Equations ( Class XI )
    In the case of the quadratic polynomial, they take the following form: These results follow immediately from the relation: As a practical matter, Vieta's formulas provide a useful method for finding the roots of a quadratic in the case where one root is much smaller than the other. If
  • Chapter 7 Sequence & Series ( Class XI )
    a sequence is a list of objects (or events) which have been ordered in a sequential fashion; such that each member either comes before, or after, every other member. More formally, a sequence is a function with a domain equal to the set of positive integers. A series is a sum of a sequence of terms.
  • Chapter 8 Solution of Triangle ( Class XI )
    Solution of triangles (Latin: solutio triangulorum) is the main trigonometric problem of finding the characteristics of a triangle (angles and lengths of sides), when some of these are known. ... Applications requiring triangle solutions include geodesy, astronomy, construction, and navigation.
  • Chapter 9 Circle (Class XI)
    A circle is a simple closed shape. It is the set of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a given point, the centre; equivalently it is the curve traced out by a point that moves so that its distance from a given point is constant. The distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius.
  • Chapter 10 Hyperbola ( Class XI )
    A hyperbola is an open curve with two branches, the intersection of a plane with both halves of a double cone. The plane does not have to be parallel to the axis of the cone; the hyperbola will be symmetrical in any case.
  • Chapter 11 Ellipse ( Class XI )
    In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve. As such, it is a generalization of a circle, which is a special type of an ellipse having both focal points at the same location.
  • Chapter 12 Straight Lines ( Class XI )
    A line is simply an object in geometry that is characterized as a straight, thin, one-dimensional, zero width object that extends on both sides to infinity. A straight line is essentially just a line with no curves. Most of the time, when we speak about lines, we are talking about straight lines! Here are some examples of straight lines.
  • Chapter 13 Linear Inequality ( Class XI )
    The graph of a linear inequality in one variable is a number line. ... And division on both sides of an inequality with a negative number produces an equivalent inequality if the inequality symbol is reversed.
  • Chapter 14 Limits ( Class XI )
    A limit is the value that a function or sequence "approaches" as the input or index approaches some value. Limits are essential to calculus and mathematical analysis in general and are used to define continuity, derivatives & integrals,
  • Chapter 15 Trigonometry ( Class XII )
    Trigonometry can be defined as the calculation part of geometry. Trigonometry is where you apply your knowledge of triangles from geometry and use the resulting formulas to help you solve problems.
  • Chapter 16 Function ( Class XII )
    a function is a relation between a set of inputs and a set of permissible outputs with the property that each input is related to exactly one output. An example is the function that relates each real number x to its square x2. ... Others are given by a picture, called the graph of the function.
  • Chapter 17 Indefinite Integral ( Class XII )
    An integral of the form. (1) i.e., without upper and lower limits, also called an antiderivative. The first fundamental theorem of calculus allows definite integrals to be computed in terms of indefinite integrals. In particular,
  • Chapter 18 Definite Integral ( Class XII )
    The Definition of the Definite Integral. ... The definite integral is defined to be exactly the limit and summation that we looked at in the last section to find the net area between a function and the x-axis. Also note that the notation for the definite integral is very similar to the notation for an indefinite integral.
  • Chapter 19 Logarithm ( Class XII )
    to top MATH REVIEW: USEFUL MATH FOR EVERYONE SECTION 4. WHAT IS A LOGARITHM? Ratios and Proportions Algebraic Expressions Exponents Logarithms Glossary and Links A logarithm is the power to which a number must be raised in order to get some other number (see Section 3 of this Math Review for more about exponents)
  • Chapter 20 Parabola ( Class XII )
    a symmetrical open plane curve formed by the intersection of a cone with a plane parallel to its side. The path of a projectile under the influence of gravity follows a curve of this shape.
  • Chapter 21 Differentiability & Continuity ( Class XII )
    Differentiability and continuity are the two fundamental concepts of differential calculus. An understanding of these difficult concepts is one of things that we, as your guides, are most anxious to share with you. As a step toward this understanding, you should consider the following relationship between these concepts.


All Chapter are included in this Best Pa

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    Subject Name: Physical Chemistry

  • p - Block elements
    Metals: Aluminium (Al), Boron (B), Tin (Sn). Metalloids: Silicon (Si), Germanium (Ge) Noble Gases: Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar). Halogens: Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br).
    The d-block elements are called transition metals and have valence electrons in d orbital's. The f-block elements,found in the two rows at the bottom of the periodic table, are called inner transition metals and have valence electrons in the f-orbital's.
  • Haloalkane And HaloArenes
    A haloalkane is a carbon, with a single bond, attached to a halogen. A haloarene is an aromatic compound attached to a halogen. ... UV light (puts a halogen on every available carbon) Electrophilic substitution (only for haloarenes)
  • Alcohol Phenols Ethers
    Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers, And Thioalcohols. ... In primary alcohol, the hydroxyl group attached to two carbon atom. Tertiary alcohol. In primary alcohol, the hydroxyl group attached to three carbon atom.
  • Aldehydes And Ketones
    Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones. Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen or alkyl or aryl substituents.
  • Biomolecules
    Biomolecules include large macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. ... Biomolecules are usually endogenous but may also be exogenous.
  • Aromatic Compounds
    Aromatic compounds, also known as arenes or aromatics, are chemical compounds that contain conjugated planar ring systems with delocalized pi electron clouds instead of discrete alternating single and double bonds. Typical aromatic compounds are benzene and toluene. They should satisfy Hückel's rule.
  • Electrochemistry
    electrochemistry. The scientific study of the electrical aspects of chemical reactions, especially the changes they bring about in the arrangement and energy of electrons. Electrochemistry is vital to the study of electrolysis, power generation by electric cells, and the transmission of electrical signals by neurons.
  • Metalurgy
    Metallurgist: job description. Metallurgists develop and manufacture metal items and structures that range from tiny precision-made components to huge engineering parts. Metallurgists usually specialise in a specific area such as process, chemical or structural metallurgy.
  • Polymers
    A polymer is a very large, chain-like molecule made up of monomers, which are small molecules. It can be naturally occurring or synthetic. ... Since poly- means "many," a polymer means "many parts."
  • Solid State
    Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids.
  • Surface Chemistry
    the branch of chemistry concerned with the processes occurring at interfaces between phases, especially that between liquid and gas.
  • Iupac Nomelclature
    Organic molecules contain both carbon and hydrogen. Though many organic chemicals also contain other elements, it is the carbon-hydrogen bond that defines them as organic. Organic chemistry defines life. ... The diversity of organic chemicals is due to the versatility of the carbon atom.
  • Free Radical
    Radical, also called Free Radical, in chemistry, molecule that contains at least one unpaired electron. Most molecules contain even numbers of electrons, and the covalent chemical bonds holding the atoms together within a molecule normally consist of pairs of electrons jointly shared by the atoms linked by the bond.
  • Isomerism
    Chemistry. the relation of two or more compounds, radicals, or ions that are composed of the same kinds and numbers of atoms but differ from each other in structural arrangement (structural isomerism) as CH 3 OCH 3 and CH 3 CH 2 OH, or in the arrangement of their atoms in space and therefore in one or more properties.
  • Nuclephile Anion
    A nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction. All molecules or ions with a free pair of electrons or at least one pi bond can act as nucleophiles. Because nucleophiles donate electrons, they are by definition Lewis bases.
  • Reaction Mechanism
    In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs. ... It also describes each reactive intermediate, activated complex, and transition state, and which bonds are broken (and in what order), and which bonds are formed (and in what order).
  • Reaction Organic Chemistry
    Organic reactions can be organized into several basic types. Some reactions fit into more than one category. For example, some substitution reactions follow an addition-elimination pathway. ... In condensation reactions a small molecule, usually water, is split off when two reactants combine in a chemical reaction.
  • Tautomerism
    Tautomers are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert. This reaction commonly results in the relocation of a proton. ... The concept of tautomerizations is called tautomerism. The chemical reaction interconverting the two is called tautomerization.

Best Buy Package of Complete Physics

(Class XI & XII)

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    Subject Name: Physics

  • Chapter 1. Basic Maths (Class XI)
    Mathematics is vital to your study of physics. Algebra is needed to isolate and solve for whatever variable is desired. Physics often deals with very large, or very small values. Significant figures and scientific notation make these extreme numbers manageable. There are often many mathematical applications in physics. Your previous knowledge of geometry, trigonometry, and graphing will all come into play with physics. These tools will be used throughout many of the topics in this series.
  • Chapter 2. Kinematics (Class XI)
    Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.
  • Chapter 3. Newtons's Laws of Motion (Class XI)
    Newton's first law states that every object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless compelled to change its state by the action of an external force. This is normally taken as the definition of inertia. ... If an external force is applied, the velocity will change because of the force.
  • Chapter 4. Work Energy Power and Circular Motion (Class XI)
    WORK, ENERGY AND POWER. Work can be defined as transfer of energy. In physics we say that work is done on an object when you transfer energy to that object. If one object transfers (gives) energy to a second object, then the first object does work on the second object.
  • Chapter 5. Fluids (Class XI)
    a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress. Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquids, gases, plasmas, and to some extent, plastic solids. ... It is best described as a viscoelastic fluid.
  • Chapter 6. Rotation and Rigid Bodies Dynamics (Class XI)
    A rotation about an external point, e.g. the Earth about the Sun, is called a revolution or orbital revolution, typically when it is produced by gravity. The axis is called a pole. Rigid-body dynamics studies the movement of systems of interconnected bodies under the action of external forces. ... The dynamics of a rigid body system is described by the laws of kinematics and by the application of Newton's second law (kinetics) or their derivative form Lagrangian mechanics.
  • Chapter 7. Gravitation (Class XI)
    Gravity, also called gravitation, in mechanics, the universal force of attraction acting between all matter. ... On Earth all bodies have a weight, or downward force of gravity, proportional to their mass, which Earth's mass exerts on them. Gravity is measured by the acceleration that it gives to freely falling objects.
  • Chapter 8. Heat & Thermodynamics (Class XI)
    Heat and temperature are often used interchangeably, but are actually two different things. Heat is the energy that is transferred from two substances at different temperatures and flows from hot to cold. Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold a substance is.
  • Chapter 9. Simple Harmonic Motion (Class XI)
    Simple harmonic motion. In mechanics and physics, simple harmonic motion is a special type of periodic motion or oscillation motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement and acts in the direction opposite to that of displacement.
  • Chapter 10. Waves (Class XI)
    a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport. Waves consist of oscillations or vibrations of a physical medium or a field, around relatively fixed locations. There are two main types of waves: mechanical and electromagnetic.
  • Chapter 11. Center of Mass & Collisions (Class XI)
    the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating. Collisions involve forces (there is a change in velocity). ... Specifically, collisions can either be elastic, meaning they conserve both momentum and kinetic energy, or inelastic, meaning they conserve momentum but not kinetic energy.
  • Chapter 13. Heat transfer & Radiations (Class XI)
    The transfer of energy between an object and its environment, due to fluid motion. The average temperature is a reference for evaluating properties related to convective heat transfer. ... The transfer of energy by the emission of electromagnetic radiation. The emission and propagation of energy in the form of rays or waves. The energy radiated or transmitted in the form of rays, waves, or particles. A stream of particles or electromagnetic waves that is emitted by the atoms and molecules of a radioactive substance as a result of nuclear decay.
  • Chapter 14. Electrostatics (Class XII)
    Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest. ... The Greek word for amber, ήλεκτρον, or electron, was the source of the word 'electricity'. Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such forces are described by Coulomb's law.
  • Chapter 15. Capacitor (Class XII)
    A capacitor is a passive electronic component that stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. In its simplest form, a capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulating material called the dielectric. ... Because of their tiny physical size, these components have low capacitance.
  • Chapter 17. EMI (Class XII)
    Electromagnetic induction is the production of voltage or electromotive force due to a change in the magnetic field. Electromagnetic induction was discovered by Michael Faraday in the 1830s. Many electrical components and types of equipment work based on the principle of electromagnetic induction.
  • Chapter 16. Current Electricity (Class XII)
    An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma). ... Electric current is measured using a device called an ammeter.
  • Chapter 18. Alternating Current (Class XII)
    Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. ... The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.
  • Chapter 19. Optics (Class XII)
    Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. ... Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical electromagnetic description of light.
  • Chapter 20. Wave Optics (Class XII)
    physical optics, or wave optics, is the branch of optics that studies interference, diffraction, polarization, and other phenomena for which the ray approximation of geometric optics is not valid.
  • Chapter 21. Magnetism (Class XII)
    Magnetism is one aspect of the combined electromagnetic force. It refers to physical phenomena arising from the force caused by magnets, objects that produce fields that attract or repel other objects. ... The motion of electrically charged particles gives rise to magnetism.
  • Chapter 22. Modern Physics & Errors (Class XII)
    Modern physics is the post-Newtonian conception of physics. It implies that classical descriptions of phenomena are lacking, and that an accurate, "modern", description of nature requires theories to incorporate elements of quantum mechanics or Einsteinian relativity, or both.
  • Chapter 12. Elasticity (Class XI)
    elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed. Solid objects will deform when adequate forces are applied on them.

Best Buy Package of Complete Inorganic Chemistry

(Inorganic Chemistry)

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    Subject Name: Inorganic Chemistry

  • 1. Periodic Table
    Inorganic chemistry encompasses the compounds - both molecular and extended solids - of everything else in the periodic table, and overlaps with organic chemistry in the area of organometallic chemistry, in which metals are bonded to carbon-containing ligands and molecules.
  • 2. Boron Family
    The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh).
  • 3. Coordination Chemistry
    Coordination refers to the "coordinate covalent bonds" (dipolar bonds) between the ligands and the central atom. Originally, a complex implied a reversible association of molecules, atoms, or ions through such weak chemical bonds. As applied to coordination chemistry, this meaning has evolved.
  • 4. D & F Block
    the elements have been grouped into four blocks, the s, p, d, and f-blocks. The elements in groups 3-12 are called d-block or transition elements. The properties of these elements are unlike those of s-block and p-block elements.
  • 5. Hydrogen Compound
    Inorganic compound, any substance in which two or more chemical elements (usually other than carbon) are combined, nearly always in definite proportions. Compounds of carbon are classified as organic when carbon is bound to hydrogen.
  • 6. Metallurgy
    One of the domains of materials science and materials engineering which involves the study of the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements or metallic compounds with their mixtures is known as metallurgy.
  • 7. S & P Block
    The s-block on the periodic table contains all of the elements in column 1 and 2 of the periodic table, plus helium, which is the topmost element in column 8A (or sometimes column 18). S-block elements are the elements with valence electrons in the s orbital.
  • 8. Salt Analysis
    Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find the elemental composition of inorganic compounds. It is mainly focused on detecting ions in an aqueous solution, therefore materials in other forms may need to be brought to this state before using standard methods.

Best Buy Package Of Complete Physical Chemistry

(Physical Chemistry)

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    Subject Name: Physical Chemistry

  • 1. Some Basic Concept of Chemistry & Mole Concept
    Mole Concept. In chemistry the mole is a fundamental unit in the Système International d'Unités, the SI system, and it is used to measure the amount of substance. This quantity is sometimes referred to as the chemical amount. In Latin mole means a "massive heap" of material.
  • 2. Stoichiometry
    Stoichiometry is the study of the quantitative relationships or ratios between two or more substances undergoing a physical change or chemical change (chemical reaction). ... Most often, stoichiometry calculations deal with the mass or volumes of products and reactants.
  • 3. Atomic Structure
    Atomic Structure. In 1803, Dalton put forward a theory which explained the composition of matter. According to Dalton, an atom may be defined as the smallest part of matter that can be take part in a chemical reaction. ... The existence of electrons and protons in atoms was first suggested by Sir J.J.
  • 4. State Of Matter
    Liquid is defined as that state of matter which has a definite volume but no definite shape. They take up the shape of the vessel in which they are put. Gas is defined as that state of matter which has neither definite shape nor definite volume.
  • 5. Chemical Bonding
    Chemical Bonding. Chemical bond is an attractive force which keeps tow atoms or ions together in a molecule.A molecule is formed if it is more stable and has lower energy than the individual atoms.
  • 6. Thermodynamics & Thermochemistry
    Thermodynamics deals with things like energy, entropy, volume, heat, work, efficiency. (ideal), free energy, chemical potential, pressure, temperature. It was developed to explain steam engines back in the 1800's.
  • 7. Chemical & Ionic Equilibrium
    In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system. ... Such a state is known as dynamic equilibrium.
  • 8. Redox Reactions
    Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species.
  • 9. Solid State
    In solids molecules are closely packed. ... Materials science is primarily concerned with the physical and chemical properties of solids. Solid-state chemistry is especially concerned with the synthesis of novel materials, as well as the science of identification and chemical composition.
  • 10. Solution
    a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. The term aqueous solution is when one of the solvents is water. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent.
  • 11. Electrochemistry
    Electrochemistry is a sub-discipline of physical chemistry; it is concerned with: chemical reactions involving charged particles and electron transfers - i.e. redox reactions. the relationship between electrical and chemical energy and the conversion of one to the other.
  • 12. Chemical Kinetics
    Chemical kinetics is an important phenomenon in physical chemistry. The term kinetics is referred to as the study of motion. It is derived from the Greek word “kinesis”. It is a study of chemical reaction with respect to reaction rates, effect of different variables such as temperature and concentration.
  • 13. Surface Chemistry
    Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces. It includes the fields of surface chemistry and surface physics.

Best Buy Package of Complete Organic Chemistry

(Organic Chemistry)

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    Subject Name: Organic Chemistry

  • 2. IUPAC Nomenclature
    the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... There is also an IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry.
  • 1. General Organic Chemistry
    General Organic Chemistry. ... Starting from vegetable oil which we eat to the gasoline which we use to run our vehicles are all hydrocarbons .Apart from hydrogen, organic compounds may also contains carbon atom bonded with sulphur, nitrogen, phosphorus and halogen atoms.
  • 3.Some Basic Principle and Techniques
    The hydrides of carbon (hydrocarbons) and their derivatives are called organic compounds. The branch of chemistry which deals with these compounds is called organic chemistry.
  • 4. Organic Reaction
    Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. The basic organic chemistry reaction types are addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions, photochemical reactions and redox reactions.
  • 5. Isomerism
    A Brief Guide to Types of Isomerism in Organic Chemistry. In organic chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula (i.e. the same number of atoms of each element), but different structural or spatial arrangements of the atoms within the molecule.
  • 6. Alkyl Halide, Alcohol and Ether
    Alkyl halides (also known as haloalkanes) are compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an alkane have been replaced by halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine). ethers are less likely to be soluble in water than the alcohol with the same molecular weight. The absence of an OH group in an ether also has important consequences for its chemical properties. Unlike alcohols, ethers are essentially inert to chemical reactions.
  • 7.Haloalkane and HaloArenes
    The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens. They are a subset of the general class of halocarbons, although the distinction is not often made.Haloalkanes are organic chemical compounds formed by replacement of one or more hydrogen atom from an alkane group by a halogen group (elements of group 17 such as chlorine, bromine, Fluorine, iodine, etc.).
  • 8.Aldehydes And Ketones
    Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen or alkyl or aryl substituents. If at least one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is an aldehyde.
  • 9.Tautomesrism
    Tautomers are isomers of a compound which differ only in the position of the protons and electrons. ... A reaction which involves simple proton transfer in an intramolecular fashion is called a tautomerism. Keto-enol tautomerism is a very common process, and is acid or base catalysed.
  • 10.Aromatic Compound
    Aromatic compounds, also known as arenes or aromatics, are chemical compounds that contain conjugated planar ring systems with delocalized pi electron clouds instead of discrete alternating single and double bonds. Typical aromatic compounds are benzene and toluene. They should satisfy Hückel's rule.
  • 11.Biomolecule POC, And Polymers
    Biomolecules include large macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. A more general name for this class of material is biological materials. Polymers are high molecular mass compounds formed by polymerization of monomers. The simple reactive molecule from which the repeating structural units of a polymer are derived is called a monomer.

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Chemistry Adv. - 2010 (Advance - Previous Year Paper - 1) 28 60 Min 102 Complete Syllabus

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